Dr. Arindam Dey is a Research Fellow at the Empathic Computing Laboratory. He completed his PhD from University of South Australia in 2013 (Supervised by: Prof. Christian Sandor and Prof. Bruce Thomas). Since the completion of his PhD and before joining UniSA again in 2016, Arindam worked in three postdoctoral positions at James Cook University (Australia), Worcester Polytechnic Institute (USA), and University of Tasmania (Australia). He visited Technical University of Munich (Germany) for a research internship and Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpore (India) for a summer internship (during B.Tech).
His primary research area is Mixed Reality and Human-Computer Interaction. He has more than 20 publications (Google Scholar). He is a peer-reviewer of many journals and conferences and have been a part of the organizing committee of the following conferences:
For more details about Arindam please visit his personal website.
We have been developing a remote collaboration system with Empathy Glasses, a head worn display designed to create a stronger feeling of empathy between remote collaborators. To do this, we combined a head- mounted see-through display with a facial expression recognition system, a heart rate sensor, and an eye tracker. The goal is to enable a remote person to see and hear from another person's perspective and to understand how they are feeling. In this way, the system shares non-verbal cues that could help increase empathy between remote collaborators.
Virtual reality (VR) interfaces is an influential medium to trigger emotional changes in humans. However, there is little research on making users of VR interfaces aware of their own and in collaborative interfaces, one another's emotional state. In this project, through a series of system development and user evaluations, we are investigating how physiological data such as heart rate, galvanic skin response, pupil dilation, and EEG can be used as a medium to communicate emotional states either to self (single user interfaces) or the collaborator (collaborative interfaces). The overarching goal is to make VR environments more empathetic and collaborators more aware of each other's emotional state.
Dey A, Billinghurst M, Lindeman RW and Swan JE II (2018) A Systematic Review of 10 Years of Augmented Reality Usability Studies: 2005 to 2014. Front. Robot. AI 5:37. doi: 10.3389/frobt.2018.00037
James Wen, Amanda Stewart, Mark Billinghurst, Arindam Dey, Chad Tossell, and Victor Finomore. 2018. He who hesitates is lost (...in thoughts over a robot). In Proceedings of the Technology, Mind, and Society (TechMindSociety '18). ACM, New York, NY, USA, Article 43, 6 pages. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1145/3183654.3183703
A. Dey, J. Phoon, S. Saha, C. Dobbins and M. Billinghurst, "Neurophysiological Effects of Presence in Calm Virtual Environments," 2020 IEEE Conference on Virtual Reality and 3D User Interfaces Abstracts and Workshops (VRW), Atlanta, GA, USA, 2020, pp. 745-746, doi: 10.1109/VRW50115.2020.00223.
Dey, A., Barde, A., Yuan, B., Sareen, E., Dobbins, C., Goh, A., ... & Billinghurst, M. (2022). Effects of interacting with facial expressions and controllers in different virtual environments on presence, usability, affect, and neurophysiological signals. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 160, 102762.
Piumsomboon, T., Dey, A., Ens, B., Lee, G., & Billinghurst, M. (2019). The effects of sharing awareness cues in collaborative mixed reality. Front. Rob, 6(5).
Dalim, C. S. C., Sunar, M. S., Dey, A., & Billinghurst, M. (2019). Using Augmented Reality with Speech Input for Non-Native Children's Language Learning. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies.
Dey, A., Chatburn, A., & Billinghurst, M. (2019, March). Exploration of an EEG-Based Cognitively Adaptive Training System in Virtual Reality. In 2019 IEEE Conference on Virtual Reality and 3D User Interfaces (VR) (pp. 220-226). IEEE.
Dey, A., Chen, H., Billinghurst, M., & Lindeman, R. W. (2018, October). Effects of Manipulating Physiological Feedback in Immersive Virtual Environments. In Proceedings of the 2018 Annual Symposium on Computer-Human Interaction in Play (pp. 101-111). ACM.
Virtual environments have been proven to be effective in evoking emotions. Earlier research has found that physiological data is a valid measurement of the emotional state of the user. Being able to see one’s physiological feedback in a virtual environment has proven to make the application more enjoyable. In this paper, we have investigated the effects of manipulating heart rate feedback provided to the participants in a single user immersive virtual environment. Our results show that providing slightly faster or slower real-time heart rate feedback can alter participants’ emotions more than providing unmodified feedback. However, altering the feedback does not alter real physiological signals.
Lawrence, L., Dey, A., & Billinghurst, M. (2018, December). The effect of video placement in AR conferencing applications. In Proceedings of the 30th Australian Conference on Computer-Human Interaction (pp. 453-457). ACM.
Dey, A., Chen, H., Zhuang, C., Billinghurst, M., & Lindeman, R. W. (2018, October). Effects of Sharing Real-Time Multi-Sensory Heart Rate Feedback in Different Immersive Collaborative Virtual Environments. In 2018 IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR) (pp. 165-173). IEEE.
Dey, A., Piumsomboon, T., Lee, Y., & Billinghurst, M. (2017, May). Effects of sharing physiological states of players in a collaborative virtual reality gameplay. In Proceedings of the 2017 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 4045-4056). ACM.
Jahani, H., Alyamani, H. J., Kavakli, M., Dey, A., & Billinghurst, M. (2017, May). User evaluation of hand gestures for designing an intelligent in-vehicle interface. In International Conference on Design Science Research in Information System and Technology (pp. 104-121). Springer, Cham.
Lee, Y., Shin, C., Plopski, A., Itoh, Y., Piumsomboon, T., Dey, A., ... & Billinghurst, M. (2017, June). Estimating Gaze Depth Using Multi-Layer Perceptron. In 2017 International Symposium on Ubiquitous Virtual Reality (ISUVR) (pp. 26-29). IEEE.
Piumsomboon, T., Lee, Y., Lee, G. A., Dey, A., & Billinghurst, M. (2017, June). Empathic mixed reality: Sharing what you feel and interacting with what you see. In 2017 International Symposium on Ubiquitous Virtual Reality (ISUVR) (pp. 38-41). IEEE.
Chen, H., Dey, A., Billinghurst, M., & Lindeman, R. W. (2017, November). Exploring pupil dilation in emotional virtual reality environments. In Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Artificial Reality and Telexistence and 22nd Eurographics Symposium on Virtual Environments (pp. 169-176). Eurographics Association.
Dey, A., Billinghurst, M., Lindeman, R. W., & Swan II, J. E. (2016, September). A systematic review of usability studies in augmented reality between 2005 and 2014. In 2016 IEEE international symposium on mixed and augmented reality (ISMAR-Adjunct) (pp. 49-50). IEEE.
Dalim, Che Samihah Che, et al. "Using augmented reality with speech input for non-native children's language learning." International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 134 (2020): 44-64.
Lee, G., Kim, S., Lee, Y., Dey, A., Piumsomboon, T., Norman, M., & Billinghurst, M. (2017, October). Mutually Shared Gaze in Augmented Video Conference. In Adjunct Proceedings of the 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, ISMAR-Adjunct 2017 (pp. 79-80). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc..
Lee, Y., Piumsomboon, T., Ens, B., Lee, G., Dey, A., & Billinghurst, M. (2017, November). A gaze-depth estimation technique with an implicit and continuous data acquisition for OST-HMDs. In Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Artificial Reality and Telexistence and 22nd Eurographics Symposium on Virtual Environments: Posters and Demos (pp. 1-2). Eurographics Association.
The rapid developement of machine learning algorithms can be leveraged for potential software solutions in many domains including techniques for depth estimation of human eye gaze. In this paper, we propose an implicit and continuous data acquisition method for 3D gaze depth estimation for an optical see-Through head mounted display (OST-HMD) equipped with an eye tracker. Our method constantly monitoring and generating user gaze data for training our machine learning algorithm. The gaze data acquired through the eye-tracker include the inter-pupillary distance (IPD) and the gaze distance to the real andvirtual target for each eye.
Piumsomboon, T., Day, A., Ens, B., Lee, Y., Lee, G., & Billinghurst, M. (2017, November). Exploring enhancements for remote mixed reality collaboration. In SIGGRAPH Asia 2017 Mobile Graphics & Interactive Applications (p. 16). ACM.
Gun Lee, Seungwon Kim, Youngho Lee, Arindam Dey, Thammathip Piumsomboon, Mitchell Norman and Mark Billinghurst. 2017. Improving Collaboration in Augmented Video Conference using Mutually Shared Gaze. In Proceedings of ICAT-EGVE 2017 - International Conference on Artificial Reality and Telexistence and Eurographics Symposium on Virtual Environments, pp. 197-204. http://dx.doi.org/10.2312/egve.20171359
Gumilar, I., Barde, A., Hayati, A. F., Billinghurst, M., Lee, G., Momin, A., ... & Dey, A. (2021, May). Connecting the Brains via Virtual Eyes: Eye-Gaze Directions and Inter-brain Synchrony in VR. In Extended Abstracts of the 2021 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 1-7).
Gumilar, I., Sareen, E., Bell, R., Stone, A., Hayati, A., Mao, J., ... & Billinghurst, M. (2021). A comparative study on inter-brain synchrony in real and virtual environments using hyperscanning. Computers & Graphics, 94, 62-75.
Barde, A., Gumilar, I., Hayati, A. F., Dey, A., Lee, G., & Billinghurst, M. (2020, December). A Review of Hyperscanning and Its Use in Virtual Environments. In Informatics (Vol. 7, No. 4, p. 55). Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute.